Images of Josephine Bracken

While still in Dapitan, Jose Rizal met an 18-year-old petite Irish girl named Josephine Bracken. Her agreement to marry made him suspect her of being an agent of the Spanish friars. She eventually became his common-law wife.

Photograph of Josephine Bracken

Below is a carved portrait of Josefina Bracken based on a photograph.

Carved Portrait of Josephine Bracken

Josefina or Josephine Bracken

Photograph of Josephine Bracken as Mrs. José Rizal in Dapitan. Rumors were that she miscarried Rizal’s child after he played a prank on her.


History to the Arrival of the Spaniards

This is a summary of the history of the Philippines from prehistoric times to the arrival of the Spaniards and Portuguese.

22,000 B.C.E
Traces of oldest skeletal remains on Palawan Island

3000 BCE
Austronesian people begin arriving in the Philippines via Taiwan

500 BCE
Philippine ports begin trading with China, Southeast Asia and India

700 BCE
Philippine trading intensifies under the Sri-Vijaya Empire (Indonesia)

Muslim (Arab and Persian) trading ports begin to form in Southeast Asia

Ming Chinese traders dominate the sea lanes

Prince Parameswara converts Malacca into a great Muslim sea emporium

Sayyid Abuy Bakhr establishes Sulu as a prominent center of Muslim trade and culture

Pope Alexander VI issues Treaty of Tordesillas

The Portuguese, under Vasco da Gama, reach West India

Ferdinand Magellan arrives in the Philippines. King Lapu-Lapu defeats Magellan, whose flotillas then sail away

The Portuguese capture Macau and toll all Southeast Asian trade to the Arab coast

Arrival of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi who begins Spain’s colonization of Las Islas Filipinas

Beginning of galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco


The Tagalog word for ‘history’ is kasaysayan.

Ang Dekalogo ni Apolinario Mabini

Summary in Tagalog of Apolinario Mabini’s Decalogue for Filipinos, a work to which he himself referred  to as “The True Decalogue.”

Continue reading “Ang Dekalogo ni Apolinario Mabini”